Water Treatment : Hard Water

What is Hard Water?

The term hardness refers to the quantity of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water. These minerals, which come primarily from limestone type rock formations, are found to some degree in almost all natural waters. Calcium and magnesium cause problems for two principal reasons:

When the water is warmed, they precipitate out of solution and form a hard, rock-like scale. This scale accelerates corrosion, restricts flow, and reduces heat transfer in water heaters and boilers.
When they combine with soap, they react to form a curd, which interferes with cleaning, dries out skin, and leaves deposits on plumbing and clothes (bathtub ring; ring around the collar).
Hardness is measured in parts per million (or the equivalent mg/L) or in grains per gallon (gpg). Note: if the water analysis is given in ppm as CaCO3 then 1 gpg = 17.1 ppm. There is no established limit for the acceptable level of hardness in water, but it is generally considered to become problematic at around 3 gpg.

Levels of hardness are referred to as follows:

Soft Water: 0 - 1 grains per gallon (gpg)
Slightly Hard Water: 1 - 4 grains per gallon (gpg)
Moderately Hard Water: 4 - 7 grains per gallon (gpg)
Hard Water: 7 - 10 grains per gallon (gpg)
Very Hard Water: Over 10 grains per gallon (gpg)

More than 85% of American homes have hard water. The softest waters occur in parts of the New England, South Atlantic-Gulf, Pacific Northwest, and Hawaii regions. Moderately hard waters are common in many of the rivers of the Tennessee, Great Lakes, and Alaska regions. Hard and very hard waters are found in some of the streams in most of the regions throughout the country. The hardest waters (greater than 1,000 ppm) are in streams in Texas, New Mexico, Kansas, Arizona, and San Diego, and Southern California

What are Drinking Water Effects of Hard Water?

Drinking hard water does contribute a very small amount of calcium and magnesium to the human body. However, most minerals are received by the foods we eat. Although hard water is not a health hazard, it does affect our daily tasks and the lifespan of household appliances. Hard water reduces the cleaning power of soaps and produces scale in hot water lines and all water using appliances. Resulting in costly repairs.

How does Hard Water Impact Commercial Business ?

Treating hard water provides important financial and operational benefits: 

• prevents scale formation on metal surfaces

• improves performance of heating elements 

• lowers servicing costs 

• reduces machinery downtime 

• increases equipment life 

• improves cleaning quality 

• reduces outlay on cleaning chemicals

• Restaurants

• Hospitals

• Nursing Homes

• Food processing plants

• Cooling towers and other commercial premises 

Commercial Water Softeners:

Commercial Water Softener Systems

Commercial Well Water Softeners

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